Category: CCK11


I feel excited about the new pedagogical ideas I have encountered during ‘Connectivism and Connective Knowledge 2011’. I’m proud to say that the newsletter ‘OLDaily – Online Learning Daily’ and ‘The Open World Learning Institute’ linked to my attempt of vlog mash-up, from our initial Friday sessions in CCK11, called ‘Connective Learning’. It was also streamed live on ‘ds106 – Digital Storyteling’ after our Wednesday online session on 23/2. During our last week I engaged in Stephen Downes’ predictions of ‘The School of the Future’ in relation to online learning.

Ten years ago, the millennium year, I graduated as an ambitious teacher and introduced ‘student-centered’ methods in my practice. Together we participated in concept mapping and stored representations in digital portfolios, lessons were recorded on video and photos of the ‘white board’ were stored in an online archive. Students used their own Laptop as PLE and shared their learning on the school network. I was in contact with the Danish Chaos Pilots, but ended up as a ‘Personal Development Coach’ and investigated the role of a ‘mentor skills’ among teachers. I got allocated time in the CAVE Simulator environment to enhance students understanding of cell physiology and interaction. Back then my Master thesis investigated e-mail, webpages and video recordings as ‘new’ tools for learning, thanks to the intercontinental master program in ‘Adult Learning and Global Change’ (ALGC). I now ten years later have the chance to investigate how teachers can implement today’s ‘new’ tools for learning.

My Node Map (you need to ‘click’ on the nodes to get my perspective):

Evaluation Questions:
What is your background?
My professional career started with my qualifications in environmental chemistry and marine biology, followed by working as a teacher with specialization in didactics and ‘Information and Communication Technology’ (ICT). I’m now focusing on my thesis for my Master of Arts and Social Science in ‘Adult Learning and Global Change’ (ALGC). My commitment to a new level of teacher training curriculum has involved me in the development of coherent strategies to fully integrate the use of computers as pedagogical tools in the classroom.

What were your learning objectives for CCK11?
In week01 I setup the following Work-Flow:
1.Follow the readings, seminars and activities of the CCK11 course.
2.Micro-blog insights, thoughts or questions on Twitter directly after the event.
3.To create a blog post for each week with models and video blogging to illustrate my connections, i.e. task-artifact.
4.Engage with other participants and establish networks
Finally to establishing credentials from the participaion in CCK11, I will complete my master’s thesis in “Adult Learning and Global Change”

Did you achieve these objectives?
My research proposal “Collaboration and Networking with Peers among In-service Teachers – The transformation teaching practice and course design with P2P learning” has been accepted and based on the results from an on-line survey I will finalize my Master thesis in ALGC. My PLN was mostly connected with other Swedish participants in CCK11 and we are already involved in new projects together. The suggested readings were divided into Insights-Thoughts-Questions in my weekly blog posts and Twitter was used to share quotes from the discussion that resonated with my understanding.

What do you see as the advantages of a MOOC?
I think the CCK11 worked as a temporary center that involved the participants in dialogues. The autonomous and open nature of the course encouraged me to decide my own learning path.

What do you see as the disadvantages of a MOOC?
The back channel during the live sessions created a feeling of belonging to the course, but I lost this aspect in the fragmented asynchrony participation. The hubs and clusters were hard to distinguish during the course.

How would you improve a MOOC such as CCK11?
In many social networking sites you develop a ‘digital identity’ and can join participants with similar interest. Maybe the introductory week also should acquaint new participants with work done by previous students.

What would you like to say to the CCK11 facilitators?
I love the facilitator’s discussion about the key elements in ‘Connectivism and Connective Knowledge’. Their expert knowledge allowed me to ‘taste’ the vocabulary and mannerism in this domain. The suggested activities could continue through the course and I also like the facilitator’s reflections of our weekly interactions with the readings.

What would you like to say to other CCK11 participants?
I’ll try to use a metaphor of water fluxes introduced by Falkenmark (1995):

Blue water is the sum of the water that recharges the groundwater and the water that runs-off over the surface. Green water is an important resource for global food production whereas the white water is non-productive that feeds back directly to the atmosphere.

In this model my fellow participants turn the CCK domain of knowledge into beautiful flowers and useful plants, their contribution prevents the development of dark clouds that block the sunshine of learning.

Week12 Insights:
•When roles and interaction change we also need to investigate how the education system adapts to increasingly fluid knowledge (i.e. an instable flux of knowledge produced by the individual). Multiple perspectives, ongoing feedback and rating of resources replace singular views of pre-packed and hierarchical content. The participation in the learning process includes interpreting the meaning of trends and creation of new resources, which evolve into an information cycle (creation, validation, sharing, repurposing). We also need to consider that our ability to learn and adapt to change is linked to our learning environments. George Siemens suggests a model of learning networks (i.e. an structure to manage the distributed nature of knowledge) and learning ecologies (i.e. an environment that fosters and supports the formation of communities and networks). [George Siemens]
•In autonomous learning the trend is moving away from courses and shifting toward topics. The competence is based on recognition of identifiable skills or capacities that shows what a student can accomplish in a specific domain. Stephen Downes foresees that educational institutions will develop delivery systems for Learning Resources (images, simulations or training modules) that are usable in Personal Learning Environments (PLEs), which will act as a conferencing tool to form a set of connections with a collection of individuals. Stephen think using RSS feed readers will be our primary way to immerse in the flow of communications related to the content domain or Community of Practice (CoP). This also put emphasis on learning the habits, patterns and ways of thinking characteristic of that discipline, since a person’s involvement will be recognized by members of that community. [Stephen Downes]

Week12 Thoughts:
•As I understand the workflow includes peer-production of knowledge, where divergence and convergence create representations (artifact/discourse) that can be shared with others. Stian Håklev, one of the founders of the Peer2Peer University , suggests the following sections:
1. Externalization – Brain Storming and Free Association
2. Processing – Grouping of the collected material
3. Spatial Organization – Draw connections between relationships/properties and arrange the groups
4. Thinking Forward – Cluster words/visualizations into hierarchy, containers or levels. Then zoom in on or yank a node into a new position, before you create…
5. Final Product – A shared up-to-date representation of the “state of the knowledge in the group” that enables further topic-based dialogue.
•On the Web we have seen how Object-oriented programming (OOP) developed into structured software applications. Similar approach has been behind the ideas of Learning Objects, which can be combined into structured networks where the individual pieces are recognized as a meaning full pattern when they are linked together (maybe also Component-oriented programming will be reflected in the trend of sharing ‘Learning Resources’). The five-step workflow process for fluid knowledge is believed to follow Getting Things Done (GTD): Collecting, Processing, Organizing, Reviewing and Doing

Week12 Questions:
•Is the learning best understood as a recognized pattern or an adaptive learning process? Or maybe both?

Trough analytics we make sense of data and after a systematic investigation this will become research. The results show patterns that can be used for prediction, intervention, personalization, and adaptation.

Week11 Insights:
•The participants in the Learning Analytics 2011 Conference defined Learning Analytics as: “the measurement, collection, analysis and reporting of data about learners and their contexts, for purposes of understanding and optimising learning and the environments in which it occurs”
•In the commercial arena this would be called Web Analytics and can be defined as “the collection, analysis and reporting of Web site usage by visitors and customers of a web site” in order to “better understand the effeciveness of online initiatives and other changes to the web site in an objective, scientific way through experimentation, testing, and measurement” [McFadden 2005]
Tanya Elias (2011) made the following comparison of analytics frameworks and models:

Week11 Thoughts:
•When we integrate, visualize and analyze data trails there is possible to discover intentions. “Whether people actually realize it or not, they are significantly increasing their personal transparency, it’s all public, and it’s electronically mineable” Mike Fitzgerald – life insurer analyst.
Nova Spivack (2004) called this The Metaweb that is evolving from the convergence of the Web, Social Software and the Semantic Web:

Week11 Questions:
•What are the privacy concerns we will face regarding our online identity or profiles?

Week10 Insights:
•If we move to a learning perspective based on forming networks and collaboration instead of managing information, we get several dichotomies related to the role of the educator. Conversation or Instruction, Influence or Control and Abundance or Scarcity are only some of them that comes to my mind. Terry Anderson describes “Three Generations of Distance Education Pedagogy” with this model:

•We can find an evolving understanding (chronological) over time “More than anything else, being an educated person means being able to see connections so as to be able to make sense of the world and act within it in creative ways” (Cronon, 1998, p14). Henry Jenkins (2006) suggests that the necessary new skills go beyond managing information and include forming networks and collaborating (p. 6).
•Clarence Fisher (2007) suggests a model of “teacher as network administrator” where learners encounter new information sources and the educator assist them in forming connections between concepts and trough critical evaluation creating a diversified learning network. Gaps in the learning network are addressed by both learners self-reflection and educators evaluating the quality of the learning network [=external] and how key concepts are related and understood [=conceptual].
•Curtis Bonk (2007) presents the educator as a concierge directing learners to resources or learning opportunities that they may not be aware of – chance to explore and allow teachers to be their tour guides. Shared awareness allows otherwise uncoordinated groups to begin to work together more quickly and more effectively (i.e. forming networks) [Shirky 2008, p.162]
[Source: Learning and Knowing in Networks: Changing roles for Educators and Designers]

Week10 Thoughts:
•I think Net Pedagogy will be linked to Content Curation, described as the act of finding, grouping, organizing and sharing the best and most relevant resources on a specific issue. I find “The 5 Models Of Content Curation” very interesting:
1. Aggregation is the act of curating the most relevant information about a particular topic into a single location.
2. Distillation is the act of curating information into a more simplistic format where only the most important or relevant ideas are shared.
3. Elevation refers to curation with a mission of identifying a larger trend or insight from smaller posts online
4. Mashups are unique curated perspectives where merging the existing content to create a new point of view.
A Fruit Mashup will have a completely new taste!
5. Chronology is a form of curation that brings together historical information organized based on time to show an evolving understanding of a particular topic.

Week10 Questions:
•Whether we are called “teacher” or “educator” the main purpose remain to facilitate learning, but how does net pedagogy change this role?

•If we benefit from sharing resources this should be true also in education and in order for connections to form – openness & transparency is important! Most people, however, are uncomfortable taking the risk of posting half-baked ideas publicly. Trust and personal sense of security is important for learners. Learning is an act of vulnerability. Given the somewhat intense flame-wars that arise online or the rude level of discourse (have a look at the comments of any popular YouTube video) in forums, feelings of vulnerability trump participation. [Week09 in CCK11]

Week09 Insights:
•One of the primary ways of connecting with others in an open course is through creating and sharing artifacts of sensemaking. These artifacts are resources produced by individual learners (diagrams, summary posts, podcasts, videos) that reflect their attempts to make sense of the course from her/his perspective… When our learning is transparent, we become teachers. [George Siemens]
•In the system implemented by Creative Commons authors may stipulate that the use requires attribution, that it will be non-commercial, or that the product will be shared under the same license (Creative Commons, 2006). These open content licenses are useful to develop Open Educational Resources (OER) that includes volunteers and incentives, community and partnerships, co-production and gateway/portal sharing. [Stephen Downes]
•The value of radical openness and cross-silo data access is mixed, and will likely become a legal and ethical battle ground over the next decade. On the one hand if you are using a service for free, then you are the product being sold to marketers and other organizations. [George Siemens]

Week09 Thoughts:
•We tend to think of distribution of text, images, graphics and multimedia as “atoms that are put together to form molecules, or Lego blocks that form toy houses” [Wiley, 2000], but the borders are blurred when we re-use materials that has previously been mixed, mashed, spread and shared.
•During our Live session in Elluminate (18/3) BrainySmurf had some interesting thoughts on the willingness to share (risk vs. trust). Instead of giving away knowledge or educational content we tend to “hoard knowledge as power” (in order to get recognized, so we treat knowledge as our own property). He also addressed the issue that we “get promoted based on being the only one who knows” (I’m better/more powerful/more credited)

Week09 Questions:•What are the benefits from sharing resources in an open & transparent way?

Week08 Insights:
•Fast change, quick turn-over and needed critical analysis of knowledge have changed power and authority in our society. The new knowledge society move towards a networked learning approach (PLE) that focuses on personal empowerment and freedom (The 3P Learning Model)
•Worries arise regarding negative effects when ‘production of knowledge’ is in the hands of market forces. Learning becomes a commodity, ‘and like any commodity that is marketed, it becomes scarce’ (Illich 1975: 73) and economic ‘haves’ in the First World is benefiting from their privileges. Oppressed poor people in the third world are in danger of being pushed out as ‘have-nots’ (Paulo Freire).

Week08 Thoughts:
•Traditional gatekeepers influencing press and mass media (top-down) lose power to the ‘Internet Society’ and networks (bottom-up, loose and flexible in nature), due to more complexity. We would like to think individual freedom (based on democracy) can overpower institutional control (with rules and boundaries), but will it be YOU that control your “objective” thoughts? Who raise awareness, lobby for change and predict consequences using rhetoric to influence the outcome?
Photograph: Chris Jackson/Getty Images
•Patrick Wintour wrote in guardian.co.uk that social networking sites are changing children’s brains, resulting in selfish and attention deficient young people.

Week08 Questions:
•What gives people power & authority? If I have connected and participate with a large number of people in my personal blog or have several twitter followers I will have more power over my network. Being at the center of attention will probably also give me authority…

This is my video presentation called ‘Managing Complexity’ from week07 in CCK11:
[Under Construction]

Week07 Insights:
•I have at this point distinguished some relationships between groups and networks, tried to define some attributes of network learning and patterns of knowledge as well as been confronted with complexity in representations of knowledge and personal learning environments. This week the focus is on how this applies to adaptive systems. The concept of Complex Adaptive System (CAS) has multiple interacting elements and these respond to feedback from each other or the environment.What are Complex Adaptive Systems? (Peter Fryer)
•A system in equilibrium does not have the internal dynamics to enable it to respond to its environment. Most systems are nested within other systems and many systems are systems of smaller systems. The system is continually self organising through the process of emergence and feedback.

Week07 Thoughts:
•The concept of the Red Queen is taken from Lewis Carroll’s Through the Looking Glass. In Carroll’s story, Alice meets a chess piece that is destined to run forever in an environment that moves with her:

After a brisk run, Alice mentions to the Red Queen that “you’d generally get to somewhere else – if you ran very fast for a long time, as we’ve been doing.” [...] “A slow sort of country!” responds the Queen. “Now, here, you see, it takes all the running you can do, to keep in the same place. If you want to get somewhere else, you must run at least twice as fast as that!”

…this principle claims the need of continual adaptation for an evolutionary system to survive in an ecological niche (or functionally defined environment).
•Without accurate and quick feed-back system, something called “competitive convergence” (Kim and Mauborgne 1999) can occur. The challenge will be to reframe the problem or reinvent the game – which is known as “leapfrogging” of competitors by new solutions.

Week07 Questions:
•Can we control complexity through adaptive systems?
•In nature we encounter more extreme phenomena, created by a cascading ‘snowball’ effect. Will this pattern happen in social networks also?

Week06 Insights:
During the CKK11 Elluminate session from February 25, 2011 George Siemens and Stephen Downes underlined some of the aspects of Personal Learning Environments & Networks.
Key elements of PLE: Self-created environment where the learner manage-share-recall-connect resources (including both information and people). PLE is a model for education that addresses learning in a distributive environment.
Content in the Centre: There is nothing new with learning in social networks through information exchange (i.e. don’t eat this plant – You will get a fuzzy head!). Originally it was through direct communication based on experience, but with the industrial era learning was situated in the classroom and controlled by institutions. Information was scaled for society with a content focus created by experts. Learning is achieved when my knowledge base is aligned with questions in the test (that someone else has decided are important) and the outcome is then measured with accreditation. The instructional design process became focused on organizing the learning outcome (i.e. rigid design and syllabus, linking teaching methods to assessment) in an institutional infrastructure. When we have structural defined design and methods the tasks and roles are fixed and content centred.
Learner in the Centre: When we take on learner-centred lifelong learning in the ‘Knowledge Era’, the sense of understanding emerges when we interact in a meaningful way. Characteristic is increased quantity of fragmented information elements harvested in distributed tools and resources that we are dealing with. We need to find ways to create a ‘Narrative Coherence’, since in an early stage the coherence isn’t there (we have fragmented information elements). Learning is achieved when we pull together and connect the various information elements in such a way that it reflects our life experiences, circumstances or type of work currently involved in.
What is New with PLE? Today’s online environment has so far measured capacity by means of activities we engage in (i.e. the tools instead of underlying concept). Educators still define the process learners need to engage in and the task are most of the times limited to mechanical connecting (Ex. create, use and evaluate or define the needs, find and interpret). The ‘new’ idea is that a PLE will support pattern recognition. You are not simply aggregating the input sources, or trying to remember/organizing/processing content. What you are doing is some sort of cognitive work or pattern recognition analysis, coming out with your account or version of rules you see in operations, similarities, processes or principles.

Mechanical Process: Creative Work:
1. Aggregate  
  2. Remix
  3. Repurpose
4. Feed Forward  

•I think this figure Rita Kop presented in Valencia summarize “The Design and Development of a Personal Learning Environment”:

Week06 Thoughts:
I came across this quote from Linda Harasim “Knowledge building occurs as students explore issues, examine one another’s arguments, agree, disagree, and question positions. Collaboration contributes to higher order learning through cognitive restructuring or conflict resolution, in which new ways of understanding the material emerge as a result of contact with new or different perspectives [...] Collaborative learning is predicated upon interaction” (Harasim, 1989, pp. 55)
She focuses on online collaboration and knowledge building and analyse and apply these concepts to the study of social media. In her book “Learning Theory and Online Technology –How New Technologies are Transforming Learning Opportunities” (released in 2011) she summarizes ‘Online Collaborative Learning Theory’ with this tag cloud [click on the image to get better resolution]:

Harasim, L. (1989) On-line education: A new domain. In R. Mason and A. Kaye, Mindweave: Communication, computers and distance education. p. 50-62. Oxford: Pergamon Press.
Harasim, L. (2011) Learning Theory and Online Technology: How New Technologies are Transforming Learning Opportunities. New York: Routledge Press.

This my video presentation called ‘Distributed Learning’ from week 5 in CCK11:

Week05 Insights:
•We create a relevant online discussion when we post our reactions to other people’s points of view. These connections link their content to our perspectives and by sharing my understanding I increase my own capacity. It’s important to let your own feelings, images and ideas of concepts create a more integrated comprehension of your experiences! [Aggregation from Stephen Downes article on “Seven Habits of Highly Connected People”]
•Individuals tend to organize their on-line interaction in bottom-up structures with three levels of social granularity between groups-networks-collectives. The equivalent in location could be understood as town-district-region or in relation family-relatives-nationality.
•The group is tightly formed structured around particular tasks or activities and will restrict participation (…I believe this is where we find most formal education). In networks individuals with similar interest, vocation or learning target tend to form links and clusters as distributed entities. The blog and social networking allow individuals to harvest information from a set of fluid relationships and produce contributions benefiting network members. They continually join, create and remove themselves which creates an adaptable social entity with capacity to identify, evaluate and annotate their resources.
•Surowiecki stated that the aggregated or averaged behaviour (that is validated through negotiation and enrolment) of many intelligent agents can be more accurate, complete or appropriate than that of any one individual. The collective is a larger and more sparsely connected network, with the highest level of social granularity. Interactions are more complicated and activities include the formation of tag clouds, content ontologies or the ordering of results from collaborative filters (i.e. Google etc.). Members participate for individual benefit in the ‘wisdom of crowds’ (or ‘smart mobs’ as Howard Rheingold would call them).
•Anderson and Dron explore the consequence for Social Software in E-Learning and connect their understanding of how net-generation learners, collective literacy and increased institutional branding are related in a Net-centric learning context (…I might get back to this later). [Aggregation from Terry Anderson and John Dron “Collectives, Networks and Groups in Social Software for E-Learning”]

Week05 Thoughts:
Barbara McLaughlin in our CCK11 cohort discuss the The Cloud Generation – and take us from Baby Boomers, Generation X, Generation Y to The Cloud Generation. Her concern is how schools can guide students in a cyber-sandbox before they “hurtle unguided through the cyber skies”. Our course facilitator Stephen Downes use the term Net Generation for ‘Digital Natives’ that use technology-based tools in their everyday lives. I have since then trying to decide what distinguish “The Net generation” and “The Cloud Generation”…
•This will be updated with thoughts on ‘arbitrary workflow’, ‘looping in optimization’ and ‘ad-hoc learning’…

Week04 Insights:I have tried to create compact statements based on ontological (identity/property) and epistemological (knowledge/learning) perceptions of different related learning theories.

·Social Constructivism – You relate parts of the subject matter to each other and comprehend the world by reinterpreting knowledge.
·Activity Theory – We search for reusable components and knowledge is mediated through participation with tools and artefacts.
·Actor-network theory (ANT) – Identities and qualities are negotiated and learning is to associate other actors in a changeable network.
·Connectivism – The property of two entities resonates and knowledge is distributed across a network of connections.

Week04 Thoughts:We are truly distributed in the CCK11 course:

Week04 Questions:What are the learning mechanisms that we engage in as persons on an individual level or networked in a community?

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